Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP) : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Cures and Remedies for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia / BOOP
What is Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP)?
The term Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP) is used to describe organizing pneumonia (granulation tissue in distal air spaces) in the bronchiolar lumen. Approximately 20 to 30% of all cases of chronic infiltrative lung disease are believed to involve BOOP.
What causes Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP)?
Etiology of this lung disease is still unkown. Statistics shows that approximately half of BOOP cases are idiopathic. However, BOOP is believed to be caused-by/associated with the following:
- Toxic fumes,
- Infection (Adenovirus, Coxiella burnetii, Herpesvirus, HIV, Influenza A virus, Measles virus, Mycoplasma, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium vivax, Pneumocystis carinii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc.)
- Connective tissue disease,
- Exposure to toxins (Acebutolol, Amiodarone, Anthracyclines, Bleomycin, Bucillamine, Carbamazepine, Cephalosporin, Exposure to paint aerosols in textile industries, Interferon beta-1a, Mesalazine, Minocycline, Nitrofurantoin, Nylon flock workers, Phenytoin, Smoke inhalation, Sotalol, Sulfasalazine, and Ticlopidine, etc.),
- Myelodysplastic syndrome, and
- Radiation therapy.
Symptoms of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP):
BOOP symptoms may include: Persistent nonproductive cough, dyspnea, Flu-like symptoms, granulation tissue plugs within the lumens of small airways, fibrinous exudates, low-grade pyrexia, malaise, proliferation of connective tissue leading to proliferative bronchiolitis obliterans (polyps) formation, Pulmonary function tests indicative of significantly diminished (<50%) vital capacity, and weight loss.
Diagnosis of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP):
- Chest x-rays indicative of patchy air-space consolidation,
- Chest CT/MRI demonstrative of areas of consolidation (unilateral or bilateral) -especially in the lower zones, and
- Tissue biopsy.
Treatment for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP):
Many patients suffering from Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP) require no therapy. For those that do need treatment, however, steroids are found to be quite effective.
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP) Prognosis:
A majority of BOOP patients with BOOP respond favorably to treatment with steroids, with well over 65% of BOOP patients obtaining a complete remission of this lung disease. Therefore, servival rate for BOOP patients is quite favorable, with overall BOOP mortality rate being approximately 10%.
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